Aquifers: A water-saturated geologic zone that yields a sufficiently high volume of water to supply wells and springs at a rate so that they can serve as practical sources of water.
Bacteria: Class of plants having round, rod-like, spiral, or filamentous single-celled or non-cellular bodies, often aggregated into colonies living in soil, water, or organic matter.
Carbon block: A solid piece of carbon, to distinguish it, from granulated carbon used in some water treatment systems.
Carcinogen: Substance or agent with the potential to produce or incite cancer.
Channeling: An event that occurs when untreated water passes through a treatment device without contacting the filter material or resin.
Contaminant: In water, any substance other than hydrogen and oxygen. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established guidelines for three different classes of contaminants.
Aesthetic-effect contaminants (substances) are harmless particles that add colour or smell to the water or make it cloudy.
Cosmetic-effect contaminants (substances) may cause skin or tooth discolouration.
Health-effect contaminants may cause health problems in humans, either acute (short-term) effects such as cramps o diarrhea, or chronic long-term effects such as cancer. Microbiological contaminants tend to cause such challenges.
Cryptosporidium: A protozoan (one-celled animal) associated with the disease cryptosporidiosis in humans. The disease can be transmitted through drinking water. Cryptosporidiosis may cause acute diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and fever that last up to two weeks in healthy adults, but may be chronic or fatal in immuno-compromised people.
Cyst: See protozoan
Diverter: A valve that connects to the end of a faucet with a mode to direct the tap water through the Patented Water Purifier to be treated and then back to the valve through a separate port.
Dual-technology cartridge: Refers to the fact that the Patented Water Purifier combines carbon-block filtering with ultraviolet (UV) light to destroy microorganisms.
E. Coli: Escherichia Coli is a bacterial species that is a major constituent of the normal intestinal flora of humans and warm-blooded animals. The predominant species of a group of bacteria known as fecal coliforms, E. Coli is used as an indicator organism of fecal contamination of water from sewage.
Effluent: Water flowing out of the system.
Flow Rate: The rate that a certain volume of water flows through the system usually measured in liters per minute (lpm) or gallons per minute (gpm)
Giardia lamblia: A protozoan that can survive in water for up to three months, associated with the disease giardiasis. The symptoms of this gastrointestinal disease may persist for weeks or months and include diarrhea, fatigue, and cramps.
Ground water: The water that systems pump and treat from aquifers (see above)
Health-risk contaminant: See Contaminant, health-effect
Inductive electronic coupling: When an electrical conductor becomes electrified through coming near, but not touching, a charged or magnetized body. An electric toothbrush uses an inductive electronic coupling with its base to allow it to recharge.
Influent: Water flowing into the system.
Inorganic contaminants: Mineral-based compounds such as metals, nitrates, and asbestos.
LED: Light-emitting diode that emits light when a current passes through it.
Microbiological: Having to do with microscopic forms of life.
Microorganism: Simply, an extremely tiny (microscopic or ultra microscopic) living being, such as bacteria, viruses or cysts.
Monochloromines: A disinfectant used for microorganism control in municipal water by combining chlorine and ammonia.
MTBE (Methyl-tert-butyl ether): An oxygenate added to gasoline to make it burn more efficiently. It can leak into drinking water from underground storage tanks, boats, and jet skis, and has tentatively been classified by the EPA as a possible human carcinogen.
NSF International: An impartial, independent third party organization that is recognized worldwide as a leading expert in water treatment.
Organic contaminants: Chemical molecules that contain carbon and other elements such as hydrogen. Organic contaminants of possible concern include chlorohydrocarbons, pesticides, and others.
PPB: Parts per billion or micro grams per liter (μg/L), a measurement of a concentration on a weight or volume basis.
PPM: Parts per million or milligrams per liter (mg/L), a measurement of a concentration on a weight or volume basis.
PSI: Pounds per square inch which is a unit of measuring force per unit area of water.
Particulates: Very tiny particles, pieces of dirt or minerals or organic matter so small they can be suspended in water. They may affect water's taste, smell, or clarity, but not human health.
Pathogenic: Organisms, including bacteria, virus or protozoa, capable of causing diseases in a host or person.
Potable: Water that has been tested and cleaned and deemed by health authorities or a municipal supplier to be suitable for drinking.
Protozoan: Any one of a phylum or subkingdom of microscopic acellular (no-celled) or unicellular (single-celled) animals. A protozoan cyst is a protozoan in a resting stage, when it has produced a resistant cover around itself. Some protozoans are serious parasites and are classified as 'health-effect contaminants'.
Radially: Water flowing from the outside towards the center of the carbon filter.
Radiation: The process of emitting energy, usually in the form of light (e.g.: the UV light).
Radioactivity: Materials that emit nuclear radiation, such as uranium.
Reservoir: A pond, lake, dug-out, or basin, either natural or artificial, for the storage, regulation, and control of water.
Sediment: Material in suspension in water or recently deposited from suspension; in the plural, the word is applied to all kinds of deposits from the waters of streams, lakes or seas.
Surface water: The water that systems pump and treat from sources open to the atmosphere, such as rivers, lakes and reservoirs.
Surrogate compound: A compound that can represent others for the purpose of performance testing.
TOC: Total organic carbon, a measure of the organic content of water.
Trihalomethanes (THMs):These are formed as a by-product of the process of disinfecting drinking water with chlorine or chloramine. THMs are suspected carcinogens. (TTHMs: total trihalomethanes.)
UV: Ultraviolet, the kind of light the Patented Water Purifier bulb emits. UV light has a wavelength shorter than visible light (such as daylight); it is destructive to the RNA and DNA of microorganisms.
Virus: The causative agent of an infectious disease.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's): A group of organic chemicals that may leach into ground water or be discharged into lakes and streams in wastewater from chemical, plastic, or petroleum plants, landfills, dry cleaners, or gasoline storage tanks. They may cause liver problems, anemia, kidney or spleen damage, or an increased risk of cancer.